• Asim Riaz Assistant Professor, Orthodontics FMH
  • Usman Zaheer Assistant Professor, LMD Lahore
  • Nauman Zaheer Assistant Professor, Institute of Dentistry
  • Naseer Ahmed Chaudhry Professor, Orthodontics FMH Lahore
  • Imran Rahbar Professor, Orthodontics FMH Lahore
  • Maliha Nauman Senior Lecturer, Oral Biology Rashid Latif Medical
Keywords: Soft tissue facial profile, Nasal profile, Horizontal lip position


The most desired and prioritized goal of an orthodontist is to achieve or maintain the facial attractiveness of patients. In modern orthodontics, the objectives of treatment planning have shifted from hard tissue to soft tissue paradigm. However, the facial and aesthetic features vary among different ethnic groups. Many orthodontists used different cephalometric analysis to find out horizontal position of both lips along with their relation to facial profile. The mean values formulated by different authors may not be proper to serve as references for other racial groups. Therefore, each population should be treated according to specific characteristics of its own. The objective of this study was to determine mean cephalometric values and angles for horizontal lip position in Pakistani adults.

85 subjects including outpatient department of Fatima Memorial Hospital and students of Fatima Memorial college of dentistry were selected. Collected data was entered and analyzed in computer program SPSS version 17. Stratification was done with regard to age and gender to control confounders and “t” test was applied. P-value of 0.05 or less was considered as statistically significant. Results of the study show significant difference between the two sexes for the Z angle, which was acute in females than males. All other parameters showed insignificant difference. Merrifield’s Z angle in this study is found to be less than Caucasians whereas H angle in this study is found to be greater than Caucasian norms. Results of this study suggest that gender specific mean values for horizontal lip position should be applied in planning and treating orthodontic cases for Pakistani population.

How to Cite
Riaz, A., Zaheer, U., Zaheer, N., Chaudhry, N. A., Rahbar, I., & Nauman, M. (2019). CEPHALOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LIP POSITION IN PATIENTS PRESENTING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL. Pakistan Oral & Dental Journal, 38(4), 472-477. Retrieved from http://www.podj.com.pk/index.php/podj/article/view/319